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Alphonsus being so old and so inform he was eighty-five, crippled, deaf, and nearly blind his one chance of success was to be faithfully served by friends and subordinates, and he was betrayed at every turn. Thus was he left free for his real work, the founding of a new religious congregation. Printable Catholic Saints PDFs Neapolitan students, in an animated but amicable discussion, seem to foreign eyes to be taking part in a violent quarrel. Deposed and excluded from his own congregation, Alphonsus suffered great anguish. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. When he was preparing for the priesthood in Naples, his masters were of the rigid school, for though the center of Jansenistic disturbance was in northern Europe, no shore was so remote as not to feel the ripple of its waves. Sarnelli was almost openly supported by the all-powerful Tanucci, and the suppression of the Congregation at last seemed a matter of days, when on 26 October, 1776, Tanucci, who had offended Queen Maria Carolina, suddenly fell from power. Even where he is not that, he may generally be trusted, as he was a Boswell in collecting facts. There can be little doubt but that the young Alphonsus with his high spirits and strong character was ardently attached to his profession, and on the way to be spoilt by the success and popularity which it brought. By AClarke625. He suspended those priests who celebrated Mass in less than 15 minutes and sold his carriage and episcopal ring to give the money to the poor. A respected opponent was the redoubtable Dominican controversialist, P. Vincenzo Patuzzi, while to make up for hard blows we have another Dominican, P. Caputo, President of Alphonsus's seminary and a devoted helper in his work of reform. Let's start with the saint. He had nearly completed his ninety-first year. His friend the Grand Almoner betrayed him; his two envoys for negotiating with the Grand Almoner, Fathers Majone and Cimino, betrayed him, consultors general though they were. This is a historic Catholic Church in mid-town St. Louis. Hi readers, it seems you use Catholic Online a lot; that's great! Were the vehement things in his letters and writings, especially in the matter of rebuke or complaint, to appraised as if uttered by an Anglo-Saxon in cold blood, we might be surprised and even shocked. In fact, despite his youth, he seems at the age of twenty-seven to have been one of the leaders of the Neapolitan Bar. [16] The 21,500 editions and the translations into 72 languages that his works have undergone attest to the fact that he is one of the most widely-read Catholic authors. In 1724, soon after Alphonsus left the world, a postulant, Julia Crostarosa, born in Naples on 31 October, 1696, and hence almost the same age as the Saint, entered the convent of Scala. The saints are not inhuman but real men of flesh and . He was named the patron of confessors and moral theologians by Pope Pius XII on 26 April 1950, who subsequently wrote of him in the encyclical Haurietis aquas. The favors and graces by which God attested his sanctity 526 CHAPTER XXXVI. Liguori wrote 111 works on spirituality and theology. Quite recently, a duet composed by him, between the Soul and God, was found in the British Museum bearing the date 1760 and containing a correction in his own handwriting. It was this which made him the prince of moral theologians, and gained him, when canonization made it possible, the title of "Doctor of the Church". The days were indeed evil. Alphonsus's temperament was very ardent. He spent the next few years in recasting this work, and in 1753 appeared the first volume of the "Theologia Moralis", the second volume, dedicated to Benedict XIV, following in 1755. When the day came the future Saint made a brilliant opening speech and sat down confident of victory. There are two Sunday services, one at 8:15 and the second at 11. In 1731, while he was ministering to earthquake victims in the town of Foggia, Alphonsus said he had a vision of the Virgin Mother in the appearance of a young girl of 13 or 14, wearing a white veil. This prayer is a petition asking for the grace to love God more, so as to fear hell and desire to do His . Nine editions of the "Moral Theology" appeared in the Saint's life-time, those of 1748, 1753-1755, 1757, 1760, 1763, 1767, 1773, 1779, and 1785, the "Annotations to Busembaum" counting as the first. Here he laid his sword before the statue of Our Lady, and made a solemn resolution to enter the ecclesiastical state, and furthermore to offer himself as a novice to the Fathers of the Oratory. He was a lawyer by the time he was 16 years old! Even its Rule was made known to her. Then God called him to his life work. Matters remained thus for some years. The eighteenth century was not an age remarkable for depth of spiritual life, yet it produced three of the greatest missionaries of the Church, St. Leonard of Port Maurice, St. Paul of the Cross, and St. Alphonsus Liguori. Even when taking him into society in order to arrange a good marriage for him, he wished Alphonsus to put God first, and every year father and son would make a retreat together in some religious house. Alphonsus, having got so much, hoped to get a little more, and through his friend, Mgr. This involves expressing our faith in Christ and in His Presence in the Eucharist, and asking Him to unite Himself with us. The foundation faced immediate problems, and after just one year, Alphonsus found himself with only one lay brother, his other companions having left to form their own religious group. St. Alphonsus Liguori. In 1723 there was a lawsuit in the courts between a Neapolitan nobleman, whose name has not come down to us, and the Grand Duke of Tuscany, in which property valued at 500,000 ducats, that to say, $500,000 or 100,000 pounds, was at stake. Beatified: September 15, 1816. In a riot which took place during the terrible famine that fell upon Southern Italy in 1764, he saved the life of the syndic of St. Agatha by offering his own to the mob. St. Alphonsus appeared a miracle of calm to Tannoia. For thirteen years Alphonsus fed the poor, instructed families, reorganized the seminary and religious houses, taught theology, and wrote. Alphonsus was not sent to school but was educated by tutors under his father's eye. To prevent the ship going to pieces on the rocks, it has need of a very responsive rudder, answering to the slightest pressure of Divine guidance. In 1732, while he was staying at the Convent of the Consolation, one of his order's houses in the small city of Deliceto in the province of Foggia in Southeastern Italy, Liguori wrote the Italian carol "Tu scendi dalle stelle" ("From Starry Skies Descending") in the musical style of a pastorale. Alphonsus himself was not spared. He was helped in this by his turn of mind which was extremely practical. In 1780, a crisis arose in which they did this, yet in such a way as to bring division in the Congregation and extreme suffering and disgrace upon its founder. [11], Liguori was consecrated Bishop of Sant'Agata dei Goti in 1762. Whenthey had withdrawn into another room, the appearance of the youth changed, and Heshowed Himself crowned with thorns, His flesh torn, and said to her: Prayers in Times of Sickness Disease & Danger, True Devotion to Mary (St. Louis de Montfort), The Glories of Mary (St. Alphonsus Liguori), A young nobleman was reading one day, while at sea, an obscene book, in which he. His sermons were very effective at converting those who had been alienated from their faith. Imprimatur. He was baptized two days later in the church of Our Lady of the Virgins, in Naples. In 1719, together with a Father Filangieri, also one of the "Pii Operarii", he had refounded a Conservatorium of religious women at Scala on the mountains behind Amalfi. He died peacefully on August 1,1787, at Nocera di Pagani, near Naples as the Angelus was ringing. Alphonsus's father, Don Joseph de' Liguori was a naval officer and Captain of the Royal Galleys. By 1777, the Saint, in addition to four houses in Naples and one in Sicily, had four others at Scifelli, Frosinone, St. Angelo a Cupolo, and Beneventum, in the States of the Church. The "Glories of Mary", "The Selva", "The True Spouse of Christ", "The Great Means of Prayer", "The Way of Salvation", "Opera Dogmatica, or History of the Council of Trent", and "Sermons for all the Sundays in the Year", are the best known. At the time of his death, there were 72, with over 10,000 active participants. Don Joseph agreed to allow his son to become a priest, provided he would give up his proposal joining the Oratory, and would continue to live at home. Stay up to date with the latest news, information, and special offers. This document gives you the case." A strong defender of the Catholic Church, Liguori said: To reject the divine teaching of the Catholic Church is to reject the very basis of reason and revelation, for neither the principles of the one nor those of the other have any longer any solid support to rest on; they can then be interpreted by every one as he pleases; every one can deny all truths whatsoever he chooses to deny. In 1762 he was appointed Bishop of Sant'Agata dei Goti. But as he drew up a rule for them, formed from that of the Visitation nuns, he does not seem to have had any clear idea of establishing the new institute of his vision. Alphonsus the Patron. In addition, he published many editions of compendiums of his larger work, such as the "Homo Apostolicus", made in 1759. Alphonsus Mary Antony John Cosmas Damian Michael Gaspard de' Liguori was born in his father's country house at Marianella near Naples, on Tuesday, 27 September, 1696. In 1749, the Rule and Institute of men were approved by Pope Benedict XIV, and in 1750, the Rule and Institute of the nuns. (Rome, 1896). Courts, you shall never see me more." Saint Alphonsus Liguori's Story Moral theology, Vatican II said, should be more thoroughly nourished by Scripture, and show the nobility of the Christian vocation of the faithful and their obligation to bring forth fruit in charity for the life of the world. See also HASSALL, The Balance of Power (1715-89) (London, 1901); COLLETTA, History of the Kingdom of Naples, 1734-1825, 2 vols., tr. Dissensions arose, the Saint's former friend and chief companion, Vincent Mannarini, opposing him and Falcoia in everything. It saw only recently its first publication in translation, in an English translation made by Ryan Grant and published in 2017 by Mediatrix Press. Ever mindful of his own sins, Saint Alphonsus saw prayer for the faithful departed as one of the chief duties of Christian charity. Today I would like to present to you the figure of a holy Doctor of the Church to whom we are deeply indebted because he was an outstanding moral theologian and a teacher of spiritual . In the second edition the work received the definite form it has since retained, though in later issues the Saint retracted a number of opinions, corrected minor ones, and worked at the statement of his theory of Equiprobabilism till at last he considered it complete. He had a love for the lower animals, and wild creatures who fled from all else would come to him as to a friend. St. Alphonsus Liguori, in full Saint Alphonsus Maria de Liguori, Alphonsus also spelled Alfonso, (born September 27, 1696, Marianella, Kingdom of Naples [Italy]died August 1, 1787, Pagani; canonized 1839; feast day August 1), Italian doctor of the church, one of the chief 18th-century moral theologians, and founder of the Redemptorists, a congregation dedicated primarily to parish and foreign missions. The German life, DILGSKRON, Leben des heiligen Bischofs und Kirchenlehrers, Alfonsus Maria de Liguori (New York, 1887), is scholarly and accurate. Many Miracles are wrought through the intercession of Alphonsus. I therefore repeat: If the divine teaching authority of the Church, and the obedience to it, are rejected, every error will be endorsed and must be tolerated. The traditional Stations of the Cross were written by St. Alphonsus Liguori, a bishop and Doctor of the Church, in 1761. The wine had changed into blood; clotted and separated into 5 different sized clots. In the eight years of his career as advocate, years crowded with work, he is said never to have lost a case. But when the question was put to the community, opposition began. Alphonsus was a devoted friend of the Society of Jesus and its long persecution by the Bourbon Courts, ending in its suppression in 1773, filled him with grief. It is true that theologians even of the broadest school are agreed that, when an opinion in favour of the law is so much more probable as to amount practically to moral certainty, the less probable opinion cannot be followed, and some have supposed that St. Alphonsus meant no more than this by his terminology. He said: "I have never preached a sermon which the poorest old woman in the congregation could not understand". This article was transcribed for New Advent by Paul T. Crowley. To come to saints, the great Jesuit missionary St. Francis di Geronimo took the little Alphonsus in his arms, blessed him, and prophesied that he would do great work for God; while a Franciscan, St. John Joseph of the Cross, was well known to Alphonsus in later life. While affecting to treat the novice with severity and to take no notice of her visions, the director was surprised to find that the Rule which she had written down was a realization of what had been so long in his mind. Furthermore, St. Alphonsus was a great theologian, and so attached much weight to intrinsic probability. The third book deals with the Ten Commandments, the fourth with the monastic and clerical states, and the duties of judges, advocates, doctors, merchants, and others. I have been mistaken. "Alphonsus was of middle height", says his first biographer, Tannoia; "his head was rather large, his hair black, and beard well-grown." Even if there be some exaggeration in this, for it is not in an advocate's power always to be on the winning side, the tradition shows that he was extraordinarily able and successful. The "Moral Theology", after a historical introduction by the Saint's friend, P. Zaccaria, S.J., which was omitted, however, from the eighth and ninth editions, begins with a treatise "De Conscientia", followed by one "De Legibus". For six years he laboured in and around Naples, giving missions for the Propaganda and preaching to the lazzaroni of the capital. They write new content and verify and edit content received from contributors. He was beatified in 1816 and canonized in 1839. In fact, in the beginning, the young priest in his humility would not be Superior even of the house, judging one of his companions, John Baptist Donato, better fitted for the post because he had already had some experience of community life in another institute. A centenary edition, Lettere di S. Alfonso Maria de'Liguori (ROME, 1887, 3 vols. The foundation of all subsequent lives is the Della vita ed istituto del venerabile Alfonso Maria Liguori, of ANTONY TANNOIA, one of the great biographies of literature. In case things became hopeless in Naples, he looked to these houses to maintain the Rule and Institute. St. Alphonsus Liguori was a bishop and moral theologian living and preaching in Naples in the eighteenth century. The priest was Alphonsus. [4] When he was 18, like many other nobles, he joined the Confraternity of Our Lady of Mercy, with whom he assisted in the care of the sick at the hospital for "incurables". According to this view he chose a different formula from the Jesuit writers, partly because he thought his own terms more exact, and, partly to save his teaching and his congregation as far as possible from the State persecution which after 1764 had already fallen so heavily on the Society of Jesus, and in 1773 was formally to suppress it. Regrettably, I can't reply to every letter, but I greatly appreciate your feedback especially notifications about typographical errors and inappropriate ads. He had to endure a real persecution for two months. It was only after his death, as he had prophesied, that the Neapolitan Government at last recognized the original Rule, and that the Redemptorist Congregation was reunited under one head (1793). His very confessor and vicar general in the government of his Order, Father Andrew Villani, joined in the conspiracy. There is a somewhat unsatisfactory French translation of Tannoia's work. Now the saint has a very great momentum indeed, and a spoiled saint is often a great villain. It is remarkable that only 25 years after the Scapular vision, Blessed Pope Gregory X was buried R. In December, 1724, he received minor orders, and the subdiaconate in September, 1725. Don Joseph de' Liguori had his faults. Alphonsus' last illness and Deaths 548 CHAPTER XXXVII. Saint Alphonsus Liguori. Though a good dogmatic theologian--a fact which has not been sufficiently recognized--he was not a metaphysician like the great scholastics. In theology Liguori is known as the principal exponent of equiprobabilism, a system of principles designed to guide the conscience of one in doubt as to whether he or she is free from or bound by a given civil or religious law. The boy was bright and quick beyond his years, and made great progress in all kinds of learning. Confident that some special sacrifice was required of him, though he did not yet know what, he did not return to his profession, but spent his days in prayer, seeking to know God's will. Alphonsus Mary Antony John Cosmas Damian Michael Gaspard de' Liguori was born in his father's country house at Marianella near Naples, on Tuesday, 27 September, 1696. His own prayer was perhaps for the most part what some call "active", others "ordinary", contemplation. Moral Theology (also known as the Theologia Moralis) is a nine-volume work concerning Catholic moral theology written between 1748 and 1785 by Alphonsus Liguori, a Catholic theologian and Doctor of the Church.This work is not to be confused with Theologia moralis universa ad mentem S. Alphonsi, a 19th-century treatise by Pietro Scavini written in the philosophical tradition of Alphonsus Liguori. Although the doctors succeeded in straightening the neck a little, the Saint for the rest of his life had to drink at meals through a tube. Of extraordinary passive states, such as rapture, there are not many instances recorded in his life, though there are some. It happened that Alphonsus, ill and overworked, had gone with some companions to Scala in the early summer of 1730. "Let us have it." The result of the retreat to the nuns was that the young priest, who before had been prejudiced by reports in Naples against the proposed new Rule, became its firm supporter, and even obtained permission from the Bishop of Scala for the change. "Banquets, entertainments, theatres," he wrote later on--"these are the pleasures of the world, but pleasures which are filled with the bitterness of gall and sharp thorns. Besides his Moral Theology, the Saint wrote a large number of dogmatic and ascetical works nearly all in the vernacular. [4], Liguori learned to ride and fence but was never a good shot because of poor eyesight. He wrote sermons, books, and articles to encourage devotion to the Blessed Sacrament and the Blessed Virgin Mary. In 1725, while still a novice, she had a series of visions in which she saw a new order (apparently of nuns only) similar to that revealed to Falcoia many years before. On the other hand, ever since the Fall of Man, the will of man has been his greatest danger. A prolific writer, he published nine editions of his Moral Theology in his lifetime, in addition to other devotional and ascetic works and letters. A pure and modest boyhood passed into a manhood without reproach. The Saint's mother was of Spanish descent, and if, as there can be little doubt, race is an element in individual character, we may see in Alphonsus's Spanish blood some explanation of the enormous tenacity of purpose which distinguished him from his earliest years. Again, we have a friendship of thirty years with the great Venetian publishing house of Remondini, whose letters from the Saint, carefully preserved as became business men, fill a quarto volume. Canonized: May 26, 1839. Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. It was approved by the king and forced upon the stupefied Congregation by the whole power of the State. We're not salespeople, but we depend on donations averaging $14.76 and fewer than 1% of readers give. St. Alphonsus Liguori Opening Prayer My Lord Jesus Christ, you have made this journey to die for me with infinite love. Alphonsus Liguori. So bent was it in the beginning, that the pressure of his chin produced a dangerous wound in the chest. It survived a catastrophic fire and was completed refurbished. In the last years of his life, he suffered a painful sickness and bitter persecution from his fellow priests, who dismissed him from the Congregation that he had founded. At all events, it proved disastrous in the result. It was through Louis Florent Gillet, Redemptorist priest and co-founder of the Sisters of IHM that we have been gifted with the legacy of St. Alphonsus Liguori. [2] Moreover, he heard an interior voice saying: "Leave the world, and give yourself to me."[5]. Corrections? [9], In 1729, Liguori left his family home and took up residence at the Chinese Institute in Naples. Educated at the University of Naples, Alphonsus received his doctorate at the age of sixteen. According to him, those were paths closed to the Gospel because "such rigour has never been taught nor practised by the Church". [12], He was beatified on 15 September 1816 by Pope Pius VII and canonized on 26 May 1839 by Pope Gregory XVI.[13][14]. He was now free, subject to the approval of the Bishop of Scala, to act with regard to the convent as he thought best. Could he have been what an Anglo-Saxon would consider a miracle of calm, he would have seemed to his companions absolutely inhuman. In his new abode he met a friend of his host's, Father Thomas Falcoia, of the Congregation of the "Pii Operarii" (Pious Workers), and formed with him the great friendship of his life. They followed this gifted preacher from church to church and town to town to hear him give a message of hope in Christ for all people. An English translation in five volumes is included in the 22 volumes of the American centenary edition of St. Alphonsus's ascetical works (New York). Among his best known works are The Glories of Mary and The Way of the Cross, the latter still used in parishes during Lenten devotions. His hymns are justly celebrated in Italy. The Superior of the Propaganda and even Falcoia's friend, Matthew Ripa, opposed the project with all their might. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree. He was a lawyer, not only during his years at the Bar, but throughout his whole life--a lawyer, who to skilled advocacy and an enormous knowledge of practical detail added a wide and luminous hold of underlying principles. On 3 October, 1731, the eve of the feast of St. Francis, she saw Our Lord with St. Francis on His right hand and a priest on His left. St. Alphonsus does not offer as much directly to the student of mystical theology as do some contemplative saints who have led more retired lives. He spent several years having to drink from tubes because his head was so bent forward. There was a considerable difference in age between the two men, for Falcoia, born in 1663, was now sixty-six, and Alphonsus only thirty-three, but the old priest and the young had kindred souls. Alphonsus Liguori, CSsR (27 September 1696 - 1 August 1787), sometimes called Alphonsus Maria de Liguori or Saint Alphonsus Liguori, was an Italian Catholic bishop, spiritual writer, composer, musician, artist, poet, lawyer, scholastic philosopher, and theologian. This lifelong friendship aided Alphonsus, as did his association with a mystic, Sister Mary Celeste. Preaching, Eugene Grimm ed., Benziger Brothers, New York, 1887, Liguori, Alphonsus. An attack of rheumatic fever, from May 1768 to June 1769, left him paralyzed. He opposed sterile legalism and strict rigourism. This has recently been translated into English with additions and corrections (Dublin, 2 vols., royal SVO); DUMORTIER, Les premihres Redemptoristines (Lille, 1886), and Le Phre Antoine-Marie Tannoia (Paris, 1902), contain some useful information; as does BERRUTI, Lo Spirito di S. Alfonso Maria de Liguori, 3 ed. In 1871, Alphonsus was declared a Doctor of the Church by Pope Pius IX. She was declared Venerable 11 August, 1901. Even the baleful shadow of Voltaire falls across the Saint's life, for Alphonsus wrote to congratulate him on a conversion, which alas, never took place! The crisis arose in this way. [7] It was there that he began his missionary experience in the interior regions of the Kingdom of Naples, where he found people who were much poorer and more abandoned than any of the street children in Naples. ); JOHNSTON, The Napoleonic Empire in South Italy, 2 vols. Dedicated to Fr. In 1949, the Redemptorists founded the Alphonsian Academy for the advanced study of Catholic moral theology. A companion, Balthasar Cito, who afterwards became a distinguished judge, was asked in later years if Alphonsus had ever shown signs of levity in his youth. Catholic Encyclopedia. Alphonsus agreed to both requests and set out with his two friends, John Mazzini and Vincent Mannarini, in September, 1730. He finally agreed to become a priest but to live at home as a member of a group of secular missionaries. He was born Alphonsus Marie Antony John Cosmos Damien Michael Gaspard de Liguori on September 27,1696, at Marianella, near Naples, Italy. Colletta's book gives the best general picture of the time, but is marred by anti-clerical bias. To all his administrative work we must add his continual literary labours, his many hours of daily prayer, his terrible austerities, and a stress of illness which made his life a martyrdom. The Glories of Mary ( Italian: Le glorie di Maria) is a classic book in the field of Roman Catholic Mariology, written during the 18th century by Saint Alphonsus Liguori, a Doctor of the Church . After a short interval--we do not know exactly how long--the answer came. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Paul T. Crowley. In 1780, Alphonsus was tricked into signing a submission for royal approval of his congregation. He founded the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, known as the Redemptorists, in November 1732. Thank you. In 1734, however, it was reconquered by Don Carlos, the young Duke of Parma, great-grandson of Louis XIV, and the independent Bourbon Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was established. St. Alphonsus Liguori's prayer to Jesus Christ to obtain His holy love comes from the "Rule of Life", a guide for growing in holiness. It would be a sacrilege to say otherwise." "You have founded the Congregation and you have destroyed it", said one Father to him. Died: August 1, 1787. CARDINAL CAPECELATRO has also written a life of the Saint, La Vita di Sant' Alfonso Maria de Liguori (Rome, 2 vols.). In 1762, there was no escape and he was constrained by formal obedience to the Pope to accept the Bishopric of St. Agatha of the Goths, a very small Neapolitan diocese lying a few miles off the road from Naples to Capua. A star preacher, he called his fellow sermonizers on the carpet for sermons of "empty, rumbling rhetoric" or "flashy . St. Alphonsus was so scrupulous about truth that when, in 1776, the regalist, Mgr. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Saint-Alfonso-Maria-de-Liguori, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of St. Alphonsus Liguori. He founded the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer (the Redemptorists). Could he have been what an Anglo-Saxon would consider a miracle of calm, he would have seemed to his companions absolutely inhuman. So many times I have sinned, but I repent sincerely because I love you. Since its publication, it has remained in Latin, often in 10 volumes or in the combined 4-volume version of Gaud. He called his system Equiprobabilism. This combination of practical common sense with extraordinary energy in administrative work ought to make Alphonsus, if he were better known, particularly attractive to the English-speaking nations, especially as he is so modern a saint. Alphonsus said nothing in his "Moral Theology" which is not the common teaching of Catholic theologians. The answer is that God kept him humble by interior trials. So indeed it proved. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York. The cause of this was "regalism", the omnipotence of kings even in matters spiritual, which was the system of government in Naples as in all the Bourbon States. His spirituality was both affective and active, centered above all on the Passion of Jesus Christ as the principal sign of our Savior's love for us. Indeed, apart from those who become saints by the altogether special grace of martyrdom, it may be doubted if many men and women of phlegmatic temperament have been canonized. Alphonsus was preaching missions in the rural areas and writing. He lived his first years as a priest with the homeless and the marginalized youth of Naples. Alphonsus, like so many saints, had an excellent father and a saintly mother. A justly celebrated life is the Vie et Institut de Saint Alphonse-Marie de Liguori, in four volumes, by CARDINAL VILLECOURT, (Tournai, 1893). and reportedly performed miracles. Alphonsus Liguori was not a favorite with the windbags of his day. By age nineteen he was practicing law, but he saw the transitory nature of the secular world, and after a brief time, retreated from the law courts and his fame. Actually, the document was a new rule devised by one of his enemies, thus causing the followers of the old rule to break away. Many years before, in Rome, Falcoia had been shown a vision of a new religious family of men and women whose particular aim should be the perfect imitation of the virtues of Our Lord. business minor uiuc, harry the dog millwall hooligan dead, berwyn police department mugshots,

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